Working papers

Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research. At the present time, we are only able to accept papers if at least one author is a member of the CLS research team. Some of the working papers below will subsequently have been published in peer-reviewed journals.

For more information about our working papers series, please email us at clsworkingpapers@ucl.ac.uk.

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Working papers

Early adiposity rebound, birthweight, and ethnicity – evidence from the millennium cohort study- CLS working paper 2016/4

Jessamy Lowe uses data from MCS Sweeps 1-4 to explore the early occurrence of the adiposity rebound (normal age 5-7 years), defined by the IOTF as a difference in z-scores between two ages ‘greater than 0.67’.

This additional weight represents an increase in fat mass as opposed to lean mass, with ‘early rebounders’ showing rates of gain in fat mass more than double those of ‘late rebounders’. This results in children who experience EAR developing different body compositions, with increased (predominantly central) adiposity.

Keywords: Millennium Cohort Study, adiposity, weight gain, fat mass, BMI.

 

Author: Jessamy Lowe
Date published: 3 October 2016
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Working papers

Higher Education and Occupational Returns – do returns vary according to students’ social origins- CLS working paper 2016/3

This paper uses data from the BCS70 to learn more about the ‘social-levelling effect’ of having a degree: it’s known that graduates from different social backgrounds tend to do equally well in the first few years following graduation, but how does this picture evolve in the longer-term?

Keywords: BCS70, education, social class, social mobility, degree, graduate, gender equality.

 

Author: Sam Parsons, Francis Green, Alice Sullivan and Dick Wiggins
Date published: 12 May 2016
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Working papers

Going online with the National Child Development Study: Design decisions during the development of the Age 55 web survey- CLS working paper 2016/2

The National Child Development Study (NCDS) Age 55 Survey adopted a sequential mixed-mode design whereby study members were first invited to participate online, with non-respondents being followed up by telephone.

This CLS working paper provides a summary of the design decisions taken to maximise the quality of the data collected via the web, and is intended to aid those considering administering a similar survey. The paper describes the design of the web survey (in the mixed mode context) and the contact strategy employed to encourage participation via the web.

Author: Matt Brown
Date published: 1 May 2016
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Working papers

Out of school activities during primary school and KS2 attainment- CLS working paper 2016/1

This CLS working paper aimed to investigate whether taking part in out of school activities during primary school is linked with end of primary school attainment and social, emotional and behavioural outcomes, for all children and specifically for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

Author: Jenny Chanfreau, Emily Tanner, Meg Callanan, Karen Laing, Amy Skipp and Liz Todd
Date published: 1 April 2016
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Working papers

Dreaming Big – Self-evaluations, aspirations, high-valued social networks and the private-school earnings premium- CLS working paper 2015/9

This CLS working paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to investigate the effect of private schools on pupils’ self-esteem and locus of control at ages 10 and 16, and on aspirations and high-value network access at age 16. The paper also examines the effect of these factors on earnings in mid-career and their hypothesised significance for understanding the private-school earnings premium achieved in later life.

Key words: non-cognitive skills, wages, locus of control, self-esteem, pay, private school, aspiration, networks, social mobility.

Author: Francis Green, Samantha Parsons, Alice Sullivan and Richard D. Wiggins
Date published: 2 November 2015
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Working papers

Understanding bullying experiences among sexual minority youths in England- CLS working paper 2015/8

This CLS working paper aims to identify whether Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth are more at risk of bullying. It uses data from Next Steps (previously known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England).

Key words: Bully-victimisation, England, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB), Next Steps, sexual minority.

Author: Morag Henderson
Date published: 1 November 2015
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What young English people do once they reach school-leaving age- CLS working paper 2015/7

This CLS working paper examines how young people’s early transitions into the labour market have changed between cohorts born in 1958, 1970, 1980, and 1990. It uses sequence analysis to characterise transition patterns and identify three distinct pathways in all cohorts.

Author: Jake Anders and Richard Dorsett
Date published: 1 October 2015
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Working papers

Inequalities in students’ choice of STEM subjects – An exploration of intersectional relationships- CLS working paper 2015/6

This CLS working paper uses data from Next Steps (previously known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England) to examine inequalities in students choosing to study STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. It looks at disparities in uptake by students’ family background, gender and ethnicity.

Key words: Subject choice, STEM, A-level, Degree, Ethnicity, Gender, Socio-economic background, Intersectional, Logistic Regression.

Author: Natasha Codiroli
Date published: 2 September 2015
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Working papers

Measuring young people’s time-use in the UK Millennium Cohort Study – A mixed-mode time diary approach- CLS working paper 2015/5

The UK Millennium Cohort Study is the first large-scale social survey to use a highly innovative mixed-mode approach for the collection of pre-coded time diaries among adolescents.

This CLS working paper focuses on issues surrounding research design, instrument development, and implementation of the time diaries. It discusses the construction of an activity code scheme relevant for young people growing up in contemporary Britain, and present the three time diary instruments.

Key words: longitudinal; methodology; Millennium Cohort Study; mixed-mode; new technologies; time diary surveys; time-use record; time-use research

Author: Stella Chatzitheochari, Kimberly Fisher, Emily Gilbert, Lisa Calderwood, Tom Huskinson, Andrew Cleary, Jonathan Gershuny
Date published: 1 September 2015
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Working papers

Does longitudinal change in adolescent educational expectations for university study vary by ethnic group?- CLS working paper 2015/4

This CLS working paper explores change in pupils’ educational expectations between ages 14-16 systematically across white, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Black Caribbean adolescents under a psychometric framework using cohort panel data from Next Steps (formerly known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England).

Key words: adolescent educational expectations, ethnicity, longitudinal mediation modelling, latent variable structural equation modelling

Author: Michael Tzanakis
Date published: 1 June 2015
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Working papers

Linkage to health administrative data- CLS working paper 2015/3

This CLS working paper documents the the first longitudinal exploration of consent to link survey and administrative data. It relies on a theoretical framework distinguishing between passive, active, consistent and inconsistent consent behaviour.

Key words: Consent; data linkage; Millennium Cohort Study; longitudinal data.

Author: Tarek Mostafa and Richard D. Wiggins
Date published: 1 May 2015
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Working papers

Additive association of maternal and paternal body mass index on weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood in the 1970 British Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2015/2

This CLS working paper aims to (i) describe the weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood and (ii) investigate the influence of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring’s trajectories in the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70).

Author: Silvia Costa, William Johnson, Russell M Viner
Date published: 1 March 2015
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