Working papers

Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research. At the present time, we are only able to accept papers if at least one author is a member of the CLS research team.

For more information about our working papers series, please email us at clsworkingpapers@ucl.ac.uk.

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Working papers

Understanding Participation: Being part of the 1958 National Child Development Study from birth to age 50- CLS working paper 2010/5

Samantha Parsons looks at the reasons why respondents have remained, or not, in the NCDS study and what strategies help improve retention. The paper presents findings from qualitative interviews with 170 men and women who have participated in the longitudinal 1958 National Child Development Study for half a century.

Keywords: NCDS, 1958 cohort, attrition bias, non-response, sub-study, qualitative.

Author: Samantha Parsons
Date published: 7 October 2010
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Working papers

Non-response in the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) from birth to 34 years- CLS working paper 2010/4

Sosthenes Ketende, John McDonald and Shirley Dex focus on a longitudinal study that had been relatively neglected in terms of analyses of non-response: the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70).   They first examine non-response at successive waves, then investigate whether there is anything to learn about response from the fact that sub-studies were carried out on these data at different points over its lifetime. There us also a brief introductory review of findings from analyses of non-response in other longitudinal data sets.

Keywords: BCS70, 1970 cohort, attrition bias, non-response, sub-studies.

Author: Sosthenes Ketende, John McDonald and Shirley Dex
Date published: 4 October 2010
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Working papers

The design and content of the ‘Social participation’ study: A qualitative sub-study conducted as part of the age 50 (2008) sweep of the National Child Development Study- CLS working paper 2010/3

Jane Elliott, Sam Parsons, Andrew Miles and Mike Savage provide an overview of the design of a qualitative sub-study of 170 members of the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study (NCDS), carried out in 2008-9. The sub-study investigated the association between individuals’ social mobility experiences and the patterns of social participation, providing a resource for other researchers wishing to use this data set. The authors reflect on the methodological advantages and disadvantages posed by conducting qualitative biographical interviews with a sub-sample of members of an existing longitudinal quantitative study. Transcribed interviews from this project have been archived at the UK Data Service, so that they are available for analysis by other researchers.

Keywords: NCDS8, 58 cohort, qualitative, social mobility, social capital.

Author: Jane Elliott, Sam Parsons, Andrew Miles and Mike Savage
Date published: 6 July 2010
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Working papers

Attitudes Towards Pensions and Retirement at Age 50: Initial results from the National Child Development Study- CLS working paper 2010/2

Matt Brown uses data collected from members of the National Child Development Study at age 50 to examine the attitudes that British 50 year olds have towards retirement, and in particular the concerns they might have about their future financial situation and whether they might be considering working beyond retirement age.  By the age of 50 only a small minority (around 1 per cent) of study members had retired, but over the next 10 to 15 years a great many of them will be making the transition from work to retirement.  The survey did not question study members about when they expected to retire, but the 2006 DWP ‘Attitudes to Pensions’ survey found that amongst those aged 45-55, 40% expected to be retired by the age of 60 and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing found that in 2006 55% of those aged 60-64 were no longer working.  In the UK at the turn of the century the average age retirement was 63 for men and 61 for women.

Keywords: NCDS8, 58 cohort, gender, retirement, pensions, savings, expectations.

Author: Matt Brown
Date published: 7 June 2010
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Working papers

NCDS Cognitive Assessments at Age 50: Initial Results- CLS working paper 2010/1

Matt Brown and Brian Dodgeon analyse the results of four sets of cognitive assessments undertaken at age 50  by NCDS members (1958 birth cohort): word recall, delayed word recall, animal naming and letter cancellation.   These are regressed onto the same cohort members’ cognitive test results at age 11 in the presence of other covariates to test the effect of health behaviours on age 50 cognitive ability by gender.

Keywords: NCDS8, 58 cohort, gender, health behaviours, smoking, drinking, memory, social class.

Author: Matt Brown and Brian Dodgeon
Date published: 18 March 2010
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Working papers

Education, First Occupation and Later Occupational Attainment: Cross-Cohort Changes among Men and Women in Britain- CLS working paper 2009/4

Erzsebet Bukodi analyses cohort and gender differences in occupational attainment up to age 34 in the 1946, 1958 and 1970 British birth cohort studies, concluding that while the most important predictor of mobility chances is educational qualifications, the importance of education does not increase across the three cohorts, though there is a significant cohort effect, with the 1958 cohort having significantly different experiences from the other tow cohorts.

Keywords: NSHD, NCDS, BCCS70, 58 cohort, 70 cohort, gender, employment, social mobility, occupational mobility, social class.

Author: Erzsebet Bukodi
Date published: 17 December 2009
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Working papers

Class Origins, Education and Occupational Attainment: Cross-cohort Changes among Men in Britain- CLS working paper 2009/3

Erzsebet Bukodi and John Goldthorpe analyse the occupational mobility of men in the 1946, 1958 and 1970 British birth cohort studies, concluding that while the most important predictor of mobility chances is educational qualifications, the importance of education does not increase across the three cohorts: class origins also have a significant effect on occupational mobility.

Keywords:  NSHD, 1946 birth cohort, NCDS, BCS70, 58 cohort, 70 cohort, education, employment, social mobility, occupational mobility, social class.

Author: Erzsebet Bukodi and John Goldthorpe
Date published: 10 December 2009
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Working papers

Trends in the relative wage opportunities of women and men across three British generations- CLS working paper 2009/2

Jenny Neuberger, Diana Kuh and Heather Joshi use data from the 1946, 1958 and 1970 British birth cohort studies to examine cross-cohort trends in employment and earnings, using multivariate analyses of selection into employment, and producing estimates of women’s and men’s wage opportunities.

Keywords:  NSHD, 1946 birth cohort, NCDS, BCS70, 58 cohort, 70 cohort, education, employment, unemployment.

Author: Jenny Neuberger, Diana Kuh and Heather Joshi
Date published: 7 December 2009
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Working papers

Combining Childrearing with Work: Do Maternal Employment Experiences Compromise Child Development- CLS working paper 2009/1

This CLS working paper examines whether various indicators of child cognition and behavioural development in later childhood and early adolescence, might be associated with: (1) hours of paid maternal work, and (indirectly) mother’s access to maternity leave; (2) the kinds of working conditions that mothers are likely to experience in the jobs they hold when they have small children; and (3) a broad indicator of the types of non-maternal care the children encounter during their early years.

It uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) and the American 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79).

 

Author: Heather Joshi, Elizabeth Cooksey and Georgia Verropoulou
Date published: 1 December 2009
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Working papers

Cross-national research using contemporary birth cohort studies – a look at early maternal employment in the United Kingdom and the United States- CLS working paper 2008/13

Danielle Crosby and Denise Hawkes look at factors associated with the timing of mothers’ post-birth employment in the UK and US, using models conditioned on prior employment and partner status.

The UK Millennium Cohort Study and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth are the two datasets used.

Keywords:  Millennium Cohort Study, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, education, employment, unemployment, fertility.

Author: Danielle Crosby and Denise Hawkes
Date published: 30 November 2008
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Working papers

Educational attainment, labour market conditions and unobserved heterogeneity – the timing of first and higher-order births in Britain- CLS working paper 2008/12

Andrew Jenkins, Heather Joshi and Mark Killingsworth analyse the effects of women’s education and aggregate unemployment rates on fertility in Britain, using two cohorts who had different experiences of education: the 1958 and 1970 British birth cohorts (NCDS & BCS70).

Keywords:  British Cohort Study 1970, NCDS, education, employment, unemployment, fertility.

Author: Andrew Jenkins, Heather Joshi and Mark Killingsworth
Date published: 29 November 2008
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Working papers

Ethnic minorities and non-response in the Millennium Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2008/11

Shirley Dex and Rachel Rosenberg look at predictors of mother’s responses and male partners’ responses in the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), using logistic regression models and a multinomial combined response model.

Keywords:  Millennium Cohort Study, missingness, non-response, ethnicity.

Author: Shirley Dex and Rachel Rosenberg
Date published: 28 November 2008
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