Working papers

Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research.

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Working papers

Cross-national research using contemporary birth cohort studies – a look at early maternal employment in the United Kingdom and the United States- CLS working paper 2008/13

Danielle Crosby and Denise Hawkes look at factors associated with the timing of mothers’ post-birth employment in the UK and US, using models conditioned on prior employment and partner status.

The UK Millennium Cohort Study and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth are the two datasets used.

Keywords:  Millennium Cohort Study, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, education, employment, unemployment, fertility.

Author: Danielle Crosby and Denise Hawkes
Date published: 30 November 2008
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Working papers

Educational attainment, labour market conditions and unobserved heterogeneity – the timing of first and higher-order births in Britain- CLS working paper 2008/12

Andrew Jenkins, Heather Joshi and Mark Killingsworth analyse the effects of women’s education and aggregate unemployment rates on fertility in Britain, using two cohorts who had different experiences of education: the 1958 and 1970 British birth cohorts (NCDS & BCS70).

Keywords:  British Cohort Study 1970, NCDS, education, employment, unemployment, fertility.

Author: Andrew Jenkins, Heather Joshi and Mark Killingsworth
Date published: 29 November 2008
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Working papers

Ethnic minorities and non-response in the Millennium Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2008/11

Shirley Dex and Rachel Rosenberg look at predictors of mother’s responses and male partners’ responses in the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), using logistic regression models and a multinomial combined response model.

Keywords:  Millennium Cohort Study, missingness, non-response, ethnicity.

Author: Shirley Dex and Rachel Rosenberg
Date published: 28 November 2008
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Working papers

Missing Income data in the Millennium Cohort Study – evidence from the first two sweeps- CLS working paper 2008/10

Denise Hawkes & Ian Plewis look at income non-response in the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), modelling attrition at MCS2 with household income and income response at MCS1 as predictors.

Key words:  Millennium Cohort Study, missingness, non-response, income.

Author: Denise Hawkes & Ian Plewis
Date published: 27 November 2008
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Working papers

Economic Deprivation, Maternal Depression, Parenting and Children’s Cognitive and Emotional Development in Early Childhood- CLS working paper 2008/9

This CLS working paper uses data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine the extent to which economic circumstances in infancy and mother’s mental well-being are associated with children’s cognitive development and behaviour problems at age 3 years, and what part parenting behaviours and attitudes play in mediating these factors.

Key words: Poverty; maternal depression; parenting; cognitive development; behaviour problems; Structural Equation Modelling

Author: Kathleen Kiernan and Carmen Huerta
Date published: 1 October 2008
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Working papers

Does Mothers’ Employment Conflict with Child Development? Multilevel Analysis of British Mothers born in 1958- CLS working paper 2008/8

This CLS working paper explores the link between the cognitive and behavioural scores of school-aged children to mothers’ employment during pre-school years. The research uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study.

Key words: child development, maternal employment, intergenerational transmission

Author: Georgia Verropoulou and Heather Joshi
Date published: 3 August 2008
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Working papers

Family poverty assessed at three years old- CLS working paper 2008/7

This CLS working paper aims to estimate the prevalence of family poverty and the characteristics of poor families in the Age 3 Sweep (MCS2) of the Millennium Cohort Study. It also aims to explore the overlaps of the different measures of poverty and estimate the odds of a family being ‘reliably’ poor. Lastly, it focuses on how this poverty is associated with some outcomes in the MCS2 and explores how family poverty changed between Age 9 months Sweep (MCS1) and MCS2.

Author: Jonathan Bradshaw and John Holmes
Date published: 2 August 2008
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Working papers

Antecedents of hazardous teenage drinking: analysis of the 1970 British Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2008/6

This CLS working paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study to explore antecendents of hazardous teenage drinking.

Author: Dr Andrew Percy and Prof Dorota Iwaniec
Date published: 1 August 2008
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Working papers

Optimal modelling of hearing impairment in middle age in relation to hearing in childhood as measured by audiograms- CLS working paper 2008/5

This CLS working paper explores the optimal modelling of hearing
impairment in middle age in relation to hearing in childhood as measured by audiograms. It uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study.

Author: Russell Ecob
Date published: 1 June 2008
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Working papers

A Profile of Population Change in Rural England- CLS working paper 2008/4

This CLS working paper investigates some differences in the sociodemographic profile of Rural and Urban England taking evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study, and the ONS Longitudinal Study spanning 4 censuses since 1971.

Author: Heather Joshi, Brian Dodgeon, Gareth Hughes
Date published: 15 May 2008
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Working papers

Single-sex Schooling and Academic Attainment at School and through the lifecourse- CLS working paper 2008/3

This CLS working paper examines the impact of single-sex schooling on a range of academic outcomes for a sample of British people born in 1958. In terms of the overall level of qualifications achieved, it finds that single-sex schooling is positive for girls at age 16, but neutral for boys, while at later ages, single-sex schooling is neutral for both sexes. It also finds that single-sex schooling is linked to the attainment of qualifications in gender-atypical subject areas for both sexes, not just during the school years, but also later in life.

The paper uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS).

Author: Alice Sullivan, Heather Joshi, Diana Leonard
Date published: 2 May 2008
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Working papers

Children’s Reading and Math Skills – The Influence of Family Caring- CLS working paper 2008/2

This CLS working paper investigates the influence of two distinct family attributes on children’s test scores in reading and mathematics. One is the family’s resources – its income level,
the parents’ education levels, own ability in reading and math, among others. The strong, well-documented relationship of family resources to children’s cognitive skills is confirmed in the two British data sets analyzed here. The other attribute is the parents’ “caring” for the child, the family’s habits regarding nurturing the children, the inclination to sacrifice in behalf of the children or to expend time and effort with the children. Measured by several behaviors during the pregnancy and the child’s early years, the study shows that these family habits of caring for their child are also strongly correlated with the child’s test scores in both reading and math, controlling
for the family’s resources.

Author: Robert T. Michael
Date published: 1 May 2008
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