Working papers

Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research.

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Working papers

Going online with the National Child Development Study: Design decisions during the development of the Age 55 web survey- CLS working paper 2016/2

The National Child Development Study (NCDS) Age 55 Survey adopted a sequential mixed-mode design whereby study members were first invited to participate online, with non-respondents being followed up by telephone.

This CLS working paper provides a summary of the design decisions taken to maximise the quality of the data collected via the web, and is intended to aid those considering administering a similar survey. The paper describes the design of the web survey (in the mixed mode context) and the contact strategy employed to encourage participation via the web.

Author: Matt Brown
Date published: 1 May 2016
Working papers

Out of school activities during primary school and KS2 attainment- CLS working paper 2016/1

This CLS working paper aimed to investigate whether taking part in out of school activities during primary school is linked with end of primary school attainment and social, emotional and behavioural outcomes, for all children and specifically for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

Author: Jenny Chanfreau, Emily Tanner, Meg Callanan, Karen Laing, Amy Skipp and Liz Todd
Date published: 1 April 2016
Working papers

Dreaming Big – Self-evaluations, aspirations, high-valued social networks and the private-school earnings premium- CLS working paper 2015/9

This CLS working paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to investigate the effect of private schools on pupils’ self-esteem and locus of control at ages 10 and 16, and on aspirations and high-value network access at age 16. The paper also examines the effect of these factors on earnings in mid-career and their hypothesised significance for understanding the private-school earnings premium achieved in later life.

Key words: non-cognitive skills, wages, locus of control, self-esteem, pay, private school, aspiration, networks, social mobility.

Author: Francis Green, Samantha Parsons, Alice Sullivan and Richard D. Wiggins
Date published: 2 November 2015
Working papers

Understanding bullying experiences among sexual minority youths in England- CLS working paper 2015/8

This CLS working paper aims to identify whether Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth are more at risk of bullying. It uses data from Next Steps (previously known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England).

Key words: Bully-victimisation, England, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB), Next Steps, sexual minority.

Author: Morag Henderson
Date published: 1 November 2015

What young English people do once they reach school-leaving age- CLS working paper 2015/7

This CLS working paper examines how young people’s early transitions into the labour market have changed between cohorts born in 1958, 1970, 1980, and 1990. It uses sequence analysis to characterise transition patterns and identify three distinct pathways in all cohorts.

Author: Jake Anders and Richard Dorsett
Date published: 1 October 2015
Working papers

Inequalities in students’ choice of STEM subjects – An exploration of intersectional relationships- CLS working paper 2015/6

This CLS working paper uses data from Next Steps (previously known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England) to examine inequalities in students choosing to study STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. It looks at disparities in uptake by students’ family background, gender and ethnicity.

Key words: Subject choice, STEM, A-level, Degree, Ethnicity, Gender, Socio-economic background, Intersectional, Logistic Regression.

Author: Natasha Codiroli
Date published: 2 September 2015
Working papers

Measuring young people’s time-use in the UK Millennium Cohort Study – A mixed-mode time diary approach- CLS working paper 2015/5

The UK Millennium Cohort Study is the first large-scale social survey to use a highly innovative mixed-mode approach for the collection of pre-coded time diaries among adolescents.

This CLS working paper focuses on issues surrounding research design, instrument development, and implementation of the time diaries. It discusses the construction of an activity code scheme relevant for young people growing up in contemporary Britain, and present the three time diary instruments.

Key words: longitudinal; methodology; Millennium Cohort Study; mixed-mode; new technologies; time diary surveys; time-use record; time-use research

Author: Stella Chatzitheochari, Kimberly Fisher, Emily Gilbert, Lisa Calderwood, Tom Huskinson, Andrew Cleary, Jonathan Gershuny
Date published: 1 September 2015
Working papers

Does longitudinal change in adolescent educational expectations for university study vary by ethnic group?- CLS working paper 2015/4

This CLS working paper explores change in pupils’ educational expectations between ages 14-16 systematically across white, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Black Caribbean adolescents under a psychometric framework using cohort panel data from Next Steps (formerly known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England).

Key words: adolescent educational expectations, ethnicity, longitudinal mediation modelling, latent variable structural equation modelling

Author: Michael Tzanakis
Date published: 1 June 2015
Working papers

Linkage to health administrative data- CLS working paper 2015/3

This CLS working paper documents the the first longitudinal exploration of consent to link survey and administrative data. It relies on a theoretical framework distinguishing between passive, active, consistent and inconsistent consent behaviour.

Key words: Consent; data linkage; Millennium Cohort Study; longitudinal data.

Author: Tarek Mostafa and Richard D. Wiggins
Date published: 1 May 2015
Working papers

Additive association of maternal and paternal body mass index on weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood in the 1970 British Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2015/2

This CLS working paper aims to (i) describe the weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood and (ii) investigate the influence of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring’s trajectories in the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70).

Author: Silvia Costa, William Johnson, Russell M Viner
Date published: 1 March 2015
Working papers

The mysteries of religion and the lifecourse- CLS working paper 2015/1

This CLS working paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to analyse the changing role of religion on cohort member over their life course.

Author: David Voas
Date published: 1 January 2015
Working papers

Social mobility and the importance of networks – evidence for Britain- CLS working paper 2014/10

This CLS working paper addresses the help that parents give their children in the job market such as internships and other similar employment opportunities. It provides insight into whether the strong link between parental socio-economic background and the individual’s own economic success can be explained in part by the fact that parents assist their children to get jobs.

The paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study Age 42 Sweep.

Author: Oscar Marcenaro-Gutierrez, John Micklewright and Anna Vignoles
Date published: 1 December 2014
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