Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research. At the present time, we are only able to accept papers if at least one author is a member of the CLS research team.
For more information about our working papers series, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This CLS working paper uses data from Next Steps (previously known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England) to examine inequalities in students choosing to study STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. It looks at disparities in uptake by students’ family background, gender and ethnicity.
Key words: Subject choice, STEM, A-level, Degree, Ethnicity, Gender, Socio-economic background, Intersectional, Logistic Regression.
The UK Millennium Cohort Study is the first large-scale social survey to use a highly innovative mixed-mode approach for the collection of pre-coded time diaries among adolescents.
This CLS working paper focuses on issues surrounding research design, instrument development, and implementation of the time diaries. It discusses the construction of an activity code scheme relevant for young people growing up in contemporary Britain, and present the three time diary instruments.
Key words: longitudinal; methodology; Millennium Cohort Study; mixed-mode; new technologies; time diary surveys; time-use record; time-use research
This CLS working paper explores change in pupils’ educational expectations between ages 14-16 systematically across white, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Black Caribbean adolescents under a psychometric framework using cohort panel data from Next Steps (formerly known as the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England).
Key words: adolescent educational expectations, ethnicity, longitudinal mediation modelling, latent variable structural equation modelling
This CLS working paper documents the the first longitudinal exploration of consent to link survey and administrative data. It relies on a theoretical framework distinguishing between passive, active, consistent and inconsistent consent behaviour.
Key words: Consent; data linkage; Millennium Cohort Study; longitudinal data.
This CLS working paper aims to (i) describe the weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood and (ii) investigate the influence of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring’s trajectories in the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70).
This CLS working paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to analyse the changing role of religion on cohort member over their life course.
This CLS working paper addresses the help that parents give their children in the job market such as internships and other similar employment opportunities. It provides insight into whether the strong link between parental socio-economic background and the individual’s own economic success can be explained in part by the fact that parents assist their children to get jobs.
The paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study Age 42 Sweep.
Vicky Cross examines the hypothesis that the employment gap between men and women has narrowed significantly in recent decades, leading to more ‘symmetrical’ families: ie where men and women’s roles are much more equal.
Using British longitudinal data collected during the first twelve years of the 21st century, the paper explores how the sharing of domestic duties and childcare responsibilities has changed among the same families between 2000 – 2012. Specifically, we address
Keywords: BCS70, gender equality, domestic duties, child-care, social class.
Tarek Mostafa examines respondents’ behaviour when consenting to link their own records and when consenting to link those of their children. The paper develops and tests a number of hypothesised mechanisms of consent, some of which were not explored in the past. The hypotheses cover: parental pride, privacy concerns, loyalty to the survey, pre-existing relations with the agency holding the data, and interviewer effects. The exercise uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study to analyse the correlates of consent in multiple domains (i.e. linkage of education, health and economic records). It relies on a multivariate probit approach to model the different consent outcomes, and uses fixed and random effects specifications to estimate the effects of interviewers.
The findings show that respondent’s behaviour vary depending on the consent domain (i.e. education, health, and economic records) and on the person for whom consent is sought (i.e. main respondent vs. cohort member). In particular, the cohort member’s cognitive skills and the main respondent’s privacy concerns have differential effects on consent. On the other hand, loyalty to the survey proxied by the longitudinal response history has a significant and strong impact on consent irrespective of the outcome. The findings also show that interviewers account for a large proportion of variations in consent even after controlling for the characteristics of the interviewer’s assignment area. In total, it is possible to conclude that the significant impact of some of the correlates will lead to sample bias which needs to be accounted for when working with linked survey and administrative data.
Keywords: Informed consent; data linkage; multivariate probit models; UK Millennium Cohort Study; sample bias.
Alice Sullivan and Matt Brown exploit the rich cognitive measures taken during childhood and adolescence in the BCS70 cohort, including adult measures of literacy and numeracy. For the first time, the 2012 survey included a repeat measure in adulthood of a cognitive scale which had been used previously with the cohort in childhood – a vocabulary test first taken in 1986, when the cohort members were 16 years old. This paper asks how vocabulary scores changed between the ages of 16 and 42, taking account of early social background and childhood reading behaviour, but also examining the influence of educational and labour market attainment and reading for pleasure in mid-life. The authors find that both educational and occupational attainment, and reading habits in childhood and adulthood, are linked to vocabulary growth.
Keywords: 1970 cohort, cognitive skills, vocabulary, education, employment, reading, numeracy.
Heather Joshi undertakes a review of literature prepared as background to work on NCDS and BCS70 on social mobility. The first part reviews literature on the definition, sources and labour market rewards to non-cognitive (‘soft’) skills or personality traits. It is generally agreed that these factors play a role over and above cognitive skills, but through complex pathways. The second part of the paper reviews the ways in which the notion of non-cognitive skill has been operationalized by researchers using the British Cohort Studies, particularly NCDS and BCS70, as part of the study of the inter-generational transmission of social advantage.
Keywords: 1958 cohort, 1970 cohort, social mobility, intergenerational, non-cognitive skills, soft skills.
This CLS working paper reviews research that uses information from the childhood waves of the 1970 British Cohort Study (birth to 16 years) as either health outcomes or as predictors of later health outcomes.