Working papers

Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research. At the present time, we are only able to accept papers if at least one author is a member of the CLS research team. Some of the working papers below will subsequently have been published in peer-reviewed journals.

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Working papers

Optimal modelling of hearing impairment in middle age in relation to hearing in childhood as measured by audiograms- CLS working paper 2008/5

This CLS working paper explores the optimal modelling of hearing
impairment in middle age in relation to hearing in childhood as measured by audiograms. It uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study.

Author: Russell Ecob
Date published: 1 June 2008
Working papers

A Profile of Population Change in Rural England- CLS working paper 2008/4

This CLS working paper investigates some differences in the sociodemographic profile of Rural and Urban England taking evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study, and the ONS Longitudinal Study spanning 4 censuses since 1971.

Author: Heather Joshi, Brian Dodgeon, Gareth Hughes
Date published: 15 May 2008
Working papers

Single-sex Schooling and Academic Attainment at School and through the lifecourse- CLS working paper 2008/3

This CLS working paper examines the impact of single-sex schooling on a range of academic outcomes for a sample of British people born in 1958. In terms of the overall level of qualifications achieved, it finds that single-sex schooling is positive for girls at age 16, but neutral for boys, while at later ages, single-sex schooling is neutral for both sexes. It also finds that single-sex schooling is linked to the attainment of qualifications in gender-atypical subject areas for both sexes, not just during the school years, but also later in life.

The paper uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS).

Author: Alice Sullivan, Heather Joshi, Diana Leonard
Date published: 2 May 2008
Working papers

Children’s Reading and Math Skills – The Influence of Family Caring- CLS working paper 2008/2

This CLS working paper investigates the influence of two distinct family attributes on children’s test scores in reading and mathematics. One is the family’s resources – its income level,
the parents’ education levels, own ability in reading and math, among others. The strong, well-documented relationship of family resources to children’s cognitive skills is confirmed in the two British data sets analyzed here. The other attribute is the parents’ “caring” for the child, the family’s habits regarding nurturing the children, the inclination to sacrifice in behalf of the children or to expend time and effort with the children. Measured by several behaviors during the pregnancy and the child’s early years, the study shows that these family habits of caring for their child are also strongly correlated with the child’s test scores in both reading and math, controlling
for the family’s resources.

Author: Robert T. Michael
Date published: 1 May 2008
Working papers

Economic position and occupational segregation in the 1990s: A comparison of the ONS Longitudinal Study and the 1958 National Child Development Study- CLS working paper 2008/1

This CLS working paper aims to examine the comparability of the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Longitudinal Study (LS), in terms of the information they provide about the employment profile of their respective samples. It also aims to describe changes in occupational segregation in England and Wales between 1991 and 2000/01.

Author: Daniel Guinea-Martin and Jane Elliott
Date published: 1 February 2008
Working papers

Changes in the Relationship between the Outcomes of Cohabiting Partnerships and Fertility among Young British Women: Evidence from the 1958 and 1970 Birth Cohort Studies- CLS working paper 2007/4

This CLS working paper investigates the effects of a range of time-varying fertility indicators, including pregnancy, and the presence and characteristics of children, on the outcomes of nonmarital unions for two cohorts of British women. The study uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70).

Key words: Cohabitation, partnership dissolution, fertility, competing risks, multilevel modelling, simultaneous equation modelling

Author: Fiona Steele, Heather Joshi, Constantinos Kallis, Harvey Goldstein
Date published: 1 September 2007

A descriptive analysis of the drinking behaviour of the 1958 cohort at Age 33 and the 1970 cohort at Age 34- CLS working paper 2007/3

This CLS working paper provides a comparison of the drinking patterns of members of the 1958 National Child Development Study at Age 33 and members of the 1970 British Cohort Study at age 34. It focuses on the relationships between social class, gender and drinking behaviour and how these may have changed over time.


Author: Jane Elliot and Brian Dodgeon
Date published: 25 July 2007
Working papers

The classification of qualifications in social suveys- CLS working paper 2007/2

This CLS working paper analyses the classification of qualifications in social surveys. It uses research that has been conducted uses the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the Labour Force Survey (LFS).

Author: Andrew Jenkins and Ricardo Sabates
Date published: 1 March 2007
Working papers

Imagining the Future – Preliminary analysis of NCDS essays written by children at Age 11- CLS working paper 2007/1

This CLS working paper describes the preliminary results from an analysis of a sample of essays written by cohort members of the 1058 National Child Development Study (NCDS) at Age 11. The essays are focused on the topic, ‘Imagine you are twenty-five…’ and potentially provide insights into the cohort members’ understanding of adult work roles and family relationships, their views on gender roles, and the ways in which social inequalities are reproduced over time.

Author: Jane Elliot and Virginia Morrow
Date published: 1 February 2007
Working papers

Academic self-concept, gender and single-sex schooling in the 1970 British Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2006/2

This CLS working paper uses data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to address question of whether gender had an impact on
academic self-concept for a cohort of 16-year olds born in 1970, and whether single-sex and selective schooling had any impact on self-concept for boys or girls.

Author: Alice Sullivan
Date published: 3 April 2006
Working papers

Allocating pupils to their nearest secondary school – the consequences for social and ability stratification- CLS working paper 2006/3

Rebecca Allen examines the proposition that secondary school choice in England has produced a stratified education system, compared to a counterfactual world where pupils are allocated into schools based strictly on proximity via a simulation that exploits the availability of pupil postcodes in the National Pupil Database. Half of all pupils in secondary schools in England do not currently attend their proximity allocation school, but a much smaller proportion (22%) are likely to be active in sorting between non-faith comprehensive schools. School segregation is almost always lower in the proximity counterfactual than in the actual data, confirming that where pupils are sorting themselves into a non-proximity school, it does tend to increase social and ability segregation. The potential to reduce school stratification via a strict proximity allocation is greatest in urban areas and in LEAs with many pupils in grammar and voluntary-aided schools.

Keywords: choice, segregation, secondary schools, school admissions, NPD.


Author: Rebecca Allen
Date published: 31 January 2006
Working papers

Changes in women’s occupations and occupational mobility over 25 years- CLS working paper 2006/1

Shirley Dex, Kelly Ward and Heather Joshi review the findings of the Women and Employment Survey over the 25 years of its existence, illustrating how the perception of women’s role has changed greatly over the quarter of a century since 1980.

Keywords: Women and Employment Survey.  Cross-Sectional review.  Women’s employment.



Author: Shirley Dex, Kelly Ward and Heather Joshi
Date published: 1 January 2006
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