Working papers

Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research. At the present time, we are only able to accept papers if at least one author is a member of the CLS research team. Some of the working papers below will subsequently have been published in peer-reviewed journals.

For more information about our working papers series, please email us at clsworkingpapers@ucl.ac.uk.

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Working papers

Unequal Entry to Motherhood and Unequal Starts in Life: Evidence from the First Survey of the UK Millennium Cohort- CLS working paper 2004/1

This CLS working paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine the diversity of the characteristics and circumstances of British mothers at the start of the twenty-first century. The report explores and interprets the socio-economic profile of the age at motherhood.

Author: Denise Hawkes, Heather Joshi, Kelly Ward
Date published: 1 November 2004
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Working papers

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: an overview and review of the literature relating to the correlates and lifecourse outcomes for males and females- CLS working paper 2004/2

Angela Brassett-Grundy and Neville Butler provide an overview of what AD/HD is, take a brief look at some of the current debates surrounding the conceptual and measurement issues associated with AD/HD, and review some of the recent literature with a specific focus on the lifecourse outcomes for individuals diagnosed with AD/HD.

Keywords: ADHD, literature review, lifecourse outcomes.

Author: Angela Brassett-Grundy and Neville Butler
Date published: 10 August 2004
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Working papers

Prevalence and adult outcomes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: evidence from a 30-year prospective longitudinal study- CLS working paper 2004/3

Angela Brassett-Grundy and Neville Butler use data on over 10,000 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study to provide an estimate of the prevalence of childhood AD/HD in a birth cohort and to explore the age-30 outcomes of those with childhood AD/HD.
Items from the Conners rating scale completed by parents and teachers, and the parental Rutter questionnaire were used to identify a group of cohort members with AD/HD symptoms at age Multiple regression analyses using probit specifications were used to ascertain the effect of age-10 AD/HD on twenty-four outcomes measured at age 30, whilst controlling for a large number of the cohort member’s socio-economic, personal and familial characteristics measured at birth and age 5.
Results showed there was a prevalence of AD/HD of 7.4%, in the upper end of the range usually reported. Although boys with AD/HD symptoms at age 10 outnumber girls, the ratio found was lower than much previous research has indicated, at 1.7:1.
Men and women with childhood AD/HD were significantly more likely than their unaffected counterparts to face a wide range of negative outcomes at age 30, spanning domains of education, economic status, housing, relationships, crime and health. These findings held true even when controlling for a number of background personal, familial, social and economic characteristics. Men tended to fare worse than women.

Keywords: ADHD, BCS70, Rutter, Conner’s scale, gender differences.

Author: Angela Brassett-Grundy and Neville Butler
Date published: 10 August 2004
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Working papers

Mobile families and other challenges in the design of the Millennium Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2002/5

This CLS working paper describes the disproportionately stratified design of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), based on a sample of electoral wards and the practicalities of implementing it.

Author: Heather Joshi, Ian Plewis, Andy Cullis, Mahmood Sadigh, Mos Mojaddad, Katie Dodd, Joanne Woods, Aliy Chapman
Date published: 1 December 2002
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Working papers

The costs and benefits of educating children in care- CLS working paper 2002/4

This CLS working paper examines the costs and benefits of educating looked after children (LAC). The report aims to provide information on the costs of current arrangements for the education of LAC. It uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70).

Author: Sonia Jackson, Leon Feinstein, Rosalind Levacic, Charlie Owen, Antonia Simon, Angela Brassett-Grundy
Date published: 1 November 2002
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Working papers

Youth factors and labour market experience in job satisfaction- CLS working paper 2002/3

This CLS working paper examines youth factors and labour market experience in job satisfaction using data from the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). The paper links two components of psychological state – job satisfaction and malaise – to general list satisfaction.

Author: John Bynner, Laura Woods, Neville Butler
Date published: 2 October 2002
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Working papers

Unpacking unequal pay between men and women across cohort and lifecycle- CLS working paper 2002/2

This CLS working paper analyses the pay gap between men and women in the 1958 National Child Development (NCDS) and 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) using data from the Age 42 and Age 30 sweeps respectively. The paper examines cohort members’ hourly earnings in full-time jobs.

Author: Peter Dolton, Heather Joshi, Gerry Makepeace
Date published: 1 October 2002
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Working papers

A note on methodology for analysing longitudinal event histories using repeated partnership data from the National Child Development Study (NCDS)- CLS working paper 2002/1

Harvey Goldstein, Huiki Pan and John Bynner show how repeated durations of particular events within individuals can be modelled using a flexible discrete time event history model that incorporates individual level random effects. The model is applied to the analysis of partnership episodes for adult members of the National Child Development Study followed up between the ages of 16 and 33.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, event history, random effects, partnership episodes.

 

 

Author: Harvey Goldstein, Huiki Pan and John Bynner
Date published: 17 January 2002
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Working papers

The 1999-2000 surveys of the National Child Development Study & the 1970 British Cohort Study: summary of content- CLS working paper 2000/3

John Bynner, Neville Butler, Elsa Ferri, Peter Shepherd and Kate Smith outline the entire content of the 1991-2000 surveys of the National Child Development Study & the 1970 British Cohort Study: a landmark follow-up where, for the first time, both national birth cohort studies were in the field at the same time with exactly the same questionnnaires.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, BCS70, 1970 birth cohort, fieldwork methodology, survey design.

 

 

Author: John Bynner, Neville Butler, Elsa Ferri, Peter Shepherd and Kate Smith
Date published: 13 November 2000
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Working papers

A comparative evaluation of currently available software remedies to handle missing data in the context of longitudinal design and analysis- CLS working paper 2000/2

Dick Wiggins, M. Ely and Kevin Lynch provide an evaluation of a range of currently available (2000) software remedies to handle missngenss in the context of  longitudinal research, illustrating their use with data from the NCDS 1958 birth cohort.  The software modules compared are NORM, SOLAS and the SPSS Missing Values Analysis Module.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, missingness, unit non-response, item non-response, attrition, bias, imputation.

 

 

Author: Dick Wiggins, M. Ely and Kevin Lynch
Date published: 19 October 2000
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The design and conduct of the 1999-2000 surveys of the National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study- CLS working paper 2000/1

This CLS working paper details the design, development and conduct of a new round of data collection for the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). The data collections took place in 1999-2000.

Author: John Bynner, Neville Butler, Elsa Ferri, Peter Shepherd and Kate Smith
Date published: 1 June 2000
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Working papers

Family disruption and the cognitive and behavioural development of children in longitudinal data from Britain and the USA- CLS working paper 1998/1

Heather Joshi, Elizabeth Cooksey, Lynda Clarke, Dick Wiggins and Andrew McCulloch use national data from both Great Britain (NCDS 1958 birth cohort) and the United States to examine the relationship between children’s family history and their educational and behavioural development. They use a multivariate, multi-level modelling strategy to estimate heterogeneity both within and between families.  Their results show that associations between family living situations and children’s well-being appear to be mediated by levels of human, financial and social capital available to children. Contrary to expectations, they found no evidence that children with non-traditional family living experiences are any more likely to be negatively impacted in Britain than across the Atlantic where diverse living arrangements are more widespread.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, child development, childhood well-being, living arrangement, multi-level modelling

 

 

Author: Heather Joshi, Elizabeth Cooksey, Lynda Clarke, Dick Wiggins and Andrew McCulloch
Date published: 24 March 1998
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