Working papers

Here you can search our series of working papers, dating back to 1983. These papers use data from our four cohort studies and cover a wide range of topics, from social inequalities and mobility, to physical health, education and cognitive development. Other papers in the series seek to improve the practice of longitudinal research. At the present time, we are only able to accept papers if at least one author is a member of the CLS research team. Some of the working papers below will subsequently have been published in peer-reviewed journals.

For more information about our working papers series, please email us at clsworkingpapers@ucl.ac.uk.

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Working papers

Childhood morbidity and adult ill-health- CLS working paper 1988/6

Chris Power and Catherine Peckham investigate the relationship between the state of health in childhood and ill health in early adult life. DESIGN–The study using NCDS4 data as otcomes and NCDS1 data on childhood health.  A broad measure of health status was constructed form the available age 7 information.  Of the target population of 17,733 births, 12,537 (76%) were retraced and interviewed at 23.  Children at age 7 were allocated to 13 morbidity groups; 20% of children had reported no ill-health apart from the common infectious diseases, but 10% were included in four or more of the morbidity groups. Children with no reported morbidity retained their health advantage into early adulthood: ratios of observed to expected ill health for four of the five indices examined at age 23 were all significantly below one (self rated health 0.81, asthma and/or wheezy bronchitis 0.63, allergies 0.79, emotional health 0.75). Children with more morbidity at age 7 had higher ratios of ill health in adulthood. A chronic condition in childhood was associated not only with excess morbidity in the short term but also with a poor health rating in early adult life (ratio = 1.38). Morbidity was significantly increased for most of the adulthood indices among children with asthma and/or wheezy bronchitis. However most ill health in young adulthood occurred in study members with a relatively healthy childhood. CONCLUSIONS–Although the state of health in childhood has long term implications, it does not form a substantial contribution to ill health in early adult life.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, childhood, young adult, health.

Author: Chris Power and Catherine Peckham
Date published: 19 May 1988
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Working papers

Occupational expectations and outcomes – some implications for vocational guidance and manpower planning- CLS working paper 1988/5

Judith Glover applies two models of occupational choice, one based on developmental theory emphasising individual choice, and the other based on the ‘opportunity structure’ approach, stressing social and structural constraints on occupational selection.  The outcomes show the strength of association between occupational expectations and outcomes is generally weak, supporting the ‘opportunity structure’ theory, except where the availability of jobs is high.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, choice of career, social class, SES, class mobility, occupation, job availability, unemployment.

Author: Judith Glover
Date published: 18 April 1988
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Working papers

Early adult outcomes of truancy II – the effects of truancy after allowing for other factors- CLS working paper 1988/4

Angelika Hibbett and Ken Fogelman expand on Hibbett’s earlier CLS Working Paper (CLS WP 1987/5) to include other covariates in accounting for the effects of truancy: social class during primary school, rate of school attendance and qualification level.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, social class, SES, class mobility, school-attendance, truanting.

Author: Angelika Hibbett and Ken Fogelman
Date published: 17 March 1988
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Working papers

A longitudinal study of housing and social circumstances in childhood and early-adulthood- CLS working paper 1988/3

Mayer Ghodsian and Ken Fogelman look at social class factors and housing during childhood as predictors of type of housing and age at marriage in early-adulthood: overcrowding, amenities and equivalent family net income.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, housing, social class, SES, class mobility, marriage, overcrowding, deprivation.

Author: Mayer Ghodsian and Ken Fogelman
Date published: 10 March 1988
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Working papers

Health selection – an explanation of social inequalities in young adults?- CLS working paper 1988/2

Chris Power, Orly Manor, John Fox and Ken Fogelman observe that self-rated health and emotional health were generally poorer in lower social classes.   But some reductions in class differences occurred when adjustment was made for ill-health in adolescence.  They examine to what extent those unhealthy-in-adolescence move down the social scale in comparison to healthier adolescents.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, health, selection effect, social class, SES, class mobility.

Author: Chris Power, Orly Manor, John Fox and Ken Fogelman
Date published: 12 February 1988
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Working papers

Smoking in pregnancy and development into early adulthood- CLS working paper 1988/1

Ken Fogelman follows up analyses of data on the NCDS 1958 cohort which had shown that effects of smoking in pregnancy on physical and intellectual development contained  differences in outcome between boys ands girsl which were small and might be explained by other factors. The analyses had taken account of birth weight and have therefore examined the effects of smoking on subsequent development in addition to this variable. To assess the importance of smoking on development in early adult life and whether the effect is independent of birth weight, data from the age 23 folow-up were analysed. Only weak evidence for a relation between smoking in pregnancy and self reported height of the offspring was apparent once social class, size of family, mothers’ height, and birth weight for gestational age were taken into account. After omission of birth weight from the analyses, however, the average difference in height between subjects whose mothers smoked 20 cigarettes a day or more during the second half of pregnancy and those whose mothers did not was 0.93 cm in men and 1.83 cm in women. A strong association was also evident with the highest qualification achieved by subjects at this age, suggesting a long term relation between smoking in pregnancy and the intellectual development of the offspring.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, health, smoking, birthweight, social class, physical and intellectual development.

 

Author: Ken Fogelman
Date published: 8 February 1988
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Working papers

New possibilities for longitudinal studies of intergenerational factors in child health and development- CLS working paper 1987/7

John Fox and Ken Fogelmanargue that, in the planning of the next follow-up of the NCDS 1958 cohort, questions should be included about other members of the immediate family (eg children of the cohort members) in order to shed more light on the influences of family and inter-generational factors in child health and development.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, health, social mobility, housing tenure, SES, social class, inter-generational analysis.

 

Author: John Fox and Ken Fogelman
Date published: 7 December 1987
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Working papers

Early adult outcomes of truancy- CLS working paper 1987/5

Angelika Hibbett finds that truancy in th NCDS 1958 cohort is associated with lower status occupations, less stable career patterns and more unemployment. Among those who were working, former truants’ incomes were not lower, but they were considerably less well off once their family situation was taken into account. Differences remained after controlling for the effects of social background, educational ability, poor attendance due to other reasons, and end-of-school qualifications. The conclusoin is that truancy is a predictor of employment problems, and of a more severe kind than will be experienced by others who share the disadvantaged background and low attainment which typify the truant.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, unemployment, jobs, truancy, non-school-attendance.

 

Author: Angelika Hibbett
Date published: 3 December 1987
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Working papers

Family breakdown, social mobility and health inequalities- CLS working paper 1987/6

Ken Fogelman, Chris Power and John Fox expand their earlier paper (CLS WP 1986/2: health & social mobility during the early years of life) to include outcomes in the NCDS 1958 cohort up to the age of 23.  They investigate the effects on health of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, health, social mobility, housing tenure, SES, social class.

 

Author: Ken Fogelman, Chris Power and John Fox
Date published: 3 December 1987
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Working papers

Trade union membership and activism among young people in Great Britain- CLS working paper 1987/4

Joan Payne argues that widespread unemployment and fundamental changes in occupational structure have caused trade union membership to fall in Britain from 1979 to the mid-1980s. In response the unions have made efforts to recruit among groups which in the past they have treated as marginal.  Announcing a new recruitment drive, the General Secretary of the Transport and General Workers’ Union stated,’Our new unionism will address itself to the problems of temporary and part-time workers, women, young people and ethnic eminorities.’  This paper aims to report on whether trade unionism among young people has markedly increased.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, undmeployment, job structure, trade union

 

Author: Joan Payne
Date published: 1 December 1987
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Handedness in twins – the right shift theory- CLS working paper 1987/3

Marian Annett explains that the right shift (RS) theory suggests the main determinant of handendess, as in other mammals, is chance. The chances are biased toward right-handedness in humans as a by-product of a single gene (ggi) which gives some advantage to the left hemisphere for speech development; in the absence of the gene, brainedness and handedness depend on chance alone, and chances which are independent.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, left-right handedness, environment.

 

Author: Marian Annett
Date published: 8 April 1987
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Working papers

Class and Tenure Mobilty, Do They Explain the Social Inequalities in Health Among Young Adults in Britain?- CLS working paper 1987/2

Ken Fogelman, John Fox and Chris Power use housing tenure as an index of socio-economic status to look at the relaionships between socio-economic differences in health at 23 and socio-economic circumstances earlier in life. By focussing separately on subjects whose circumstances changed and those whose circumstances remained stable they investigate whether health~ related mobility occurs, its magnitude and its importance to future outcomes.

Keywords: 1958 birth cohort, NCDS, National Child Development Study, young adult, health, school, education, social class, SES, housing tenure, social mobility.

 

Author: Ken Fogelman, John Fox and Chris Power
Date published: 6 April 1987
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